Muhammad died by injection at 9:11 p.m. at Greensville Correctional Center in Jarratt. His attorneys asked to commute his sentence to life in prison because they said he was mentally ill.
The U.S. Supreme Court turned down Muhammad's final appeal Monday.
Muhammad was sentenced to death for killing Dean Harold Meyers at a Manassas gas station during a spree that left 10 dead across Maryland, Virginia and Washington, D.C.
Victims were gunned down while doing everyday chores like shopping or pumping gas.