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Mercury and Fish


Concerns are on the rise about elevated mercury levels in fish found in Eastern Carolina.

Officials with the Environmental Protection Agency say they are concerned about recents tests from the Neuse River in Craven County. Four different sites along the river were tested, and nearly 100 fish tested for levels higher than the EPA standards.

According to the study, the fish affected most were large mouth bass.
Over time, mercury can build up a in person's body and damage the neurological system. Those most susceptible to mercury are nursing or pregnant women and children.

Watch WITN-7 News Monday at 6 p.m. for more on this developing story.

EXTENDED WEB COVERAGE:

From the Environmental Protection Agency website:

Fish and shellfish are an important part of a healthy diet. Fish and shellfish contain high-quality protein and other essential nutrients, are low in saturated fat, and contain omega-3 fatty acids. A well-balanced diet that includes a variety of fish and shellfish can contribute to heart health and children's proper growth and development. So, women and young children in particular should include fish or shellfish in their diets due to the many nutritional benefits.

However, nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of mercury. For most people, the risk from mercury by eating fish and shellfish is not a health concern. Yet, some fish and shellfish contain higher levels of mercury that may harm an unborn baby or young child's developing nervous system. The risks from mercury in fish and shellfish depend on the amount of fish and shellfish eaten and the levels of mercury in the fish and shellfish. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are advising women who may become pregnant, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and young children to avoid some types of fish and eat fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.

By following these 3 recommendations for selecting and eating fish or shellfish, women and young children will receive the benefits of eating fish and shellfish and be confident that they have reduced their exposure to the harmful effects of mercury.

Do not eat Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel, or Tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury.

Eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury.

Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish.

Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white") tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week.

Check local advisories about the safety of fish caught by family and friends in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. If no advice is available, eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don't consume any other fish during that week.

Follow these same recommendations when feeding fish and shellfish to your young child, but serve smaller portions.

Frequently Asked Questions about Mercury in Fish and Shellfish:
What is mercury and methylmercury?
I'm a woman who could have children but I'm not pregnant - so why should I be concerned about methylmercury?
Is there methylmercury in all fish and shellfish?
I don't see the fish I eat in the advisory. What should I do?
What about fish sticks and fast food sandwiches?
The advice about canned tuna is in the advisory, but what's the advice about tuna steaks?
What if I eat more than the recommended amount of fish and shellfish in a week?
Where do I get information about the safety of fish caught recreationally by family or friends?
Further information
Background information about the advisory
1. What is mercury and methylmercury?
Mercury occurs naturally in the environment and can also be released into the air through industrial pollution. Mercury falls from the air and can accumulate in streams and oceans and is turned into methylmercury in the water. It is this type of mercury that can be harmful to your unborn baby and young child. Fish absorb the methylmercury as they feed in these waters and so it builds up in them. It builds up more in some types of fish and shellfish than others, depending on what the fish eat, which is why the levels vary.

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2. I'm a woman who could have children but I'm not pregnant - so why should I be concerned about methylmercury?
If you regularly eat types of fish that are high in methylmercury, it can accumulate in your blood stream over time. Methylmercury is removed from the body naturally, but it may take over a year for the levels to drop significantly. Thus, it may be present in a woman even before she becomes pregnant. This is the reason why women who are trying to become pregnant should also avoid eating certain types of fish.

3. Is there methylmercury in all fish and shellfish?
Nearly all fish and shellfish contain traces of methylmercury. However, larger fish that have lived longer have the highest levels of methylmercury because they've had more time to accumulate it. These large fish (swordfish, shark, king mackerel and tilefish) pose the greatest risk. Other types of fish and shellfish may be eaten in the amounts recommended by FDA and EPA.

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4. I don't see the fish I eat in the advisory. What should I do?
If you want more information about the levels in the various types of fish you eat, see the FDA food safety web site or the EPA Fish Advisory website.

5. What about fish sticks and fast food sandwiches?
Fish sticks and "fast-food" sandwiches are commonly made from fish that are low in mercury.

6. The advice about canned tuna is in the advisory, but what's the advice about tuna steaks?
Because tuna steak generally contains higher levels of mercury than canned light tuna, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of tuna steak per week.

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7. What if I eat more than the recommended amount of fish and shellfish in a week?
One week's consumption of fish does not change the level of methylmercury in the body much at all. If you eat a lot of fish one week, you can cut back for the next week or two. Just make sure you average the recommended amount per week.

8. Where do I get information about the safety of fish caught recreationally by family or friends?
Before you go fishing, check your Fishing Regulations Booklet for information about recreationally caught fish. You can also contact your local health department for information about local advisories. You need to check local advisories because some kinds of fish and shellfish caught in your local waters may have higher or much lower than average levels of mercury. This depends on the levels of mercury in the water in which the fish are caught. Those fish with much lower levels may be eaten more frequently and in larger amounts.

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Further Information

For further information about the risks of mercury in fish and shellfish call the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's food information line toll-free at 1-888-SAFEFOOD or visit FDA's Food Safety Website

For further information about the safety of locally caught fish and shellfish, visit the Environmental Protection Agency's Fish Advisory website or contact your State or Local Health Department. For information on EPA's actions to control mercury, visit EPA's mercury website.

Background information about the advisory

Fact Sheet: Backgrounder on the FDA/EPA Consumer Advisory on Mercury in Fish and Shellfish
Background on the process used to develop and test the advisory message, a summary of the key messages and of differences between the current and previous advisories. | Print Version (PDF, 67KB, 5 pages)

Advisory programs in your State | State Contacts list
State and tribal environmental programs and departments of health issue fish consumption advisories for their waterbodies. The contacts page lists fish consumption advisory program contact information and links to fish consumption advice from states, tribes, and territories.
Technical Information

Technical Memorandum: Origin of 1 meal / week Freshwater Fish Consumption Rate (PDF, 84KB, 5 pgs)
The national advisory includes advise on eating fish caught by family and friends from local waters. The national advice says that in the absence of local advise, you can eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) per week of fish you catch from local waters, but don’t consume any other fish during that week. This technical memorandum documents the derivation of the 6 ounces per week.
Mean Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Non-commercial Fish from Advisory Sites (PDF, 18KB, 1 slide)
This graph shows measured levels of mercury in a variety of fish species commonly caught during recreational and subsistence fishing activity.


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