A study of NCAA Division I major infractions cases from 1953 to 2014 shows big-money sports football and men's basketball were involved in 83 percent of the cases.
It also found that probation and public reprimand and censure were the most common penalties.
Temple University's Sport Industry Research Center prepared the study released Tuesday for the NCAA Division I Committee on Infractions.
Center director and report co-author Jeremy Jordan said the study is the first to review all major infractions cases for Division I.
Of the 554 cases, 459 involved football, men's basketball or both.
Schools from Power Five conferences accounted for 40 percent of all major infractions cases. The report found schools in those conferences generally were treated no differently than schools in other leagues in terms of penalties.